Tense Grammer Rules In Hindi Present /Past/Future Tenses with Charts

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Tense Grammer Rules In Hindi Present /Past/Future Tenses with Charts

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Tenses Types

  1. Present Tense
  2. Past Tense
  3. Future Tense
  4. Rules
  5. Example

Tenses In Hindi Tense Chart

Tense Formula
1) Simple present tense
(होता है/नहीं होता है)
Positive: S+ V1(s,es) + O
Negative: S + do/does + Not + V1+ O
Q-I: Do/does + S + V1 + O +?
Q-II: Wh+ Do/does + S + V1 + O +?
2) Present Continuous Tense
(हो रहा है/ नहीं हो रहा है)
Positive: S+ am/is/are+ (v+ing) + O
Negative: S+ am/is/are + not + (v+ing) + O
Q-I: Am/is/are/+  S + (v+ing) +O+?
Q-II:– Wh + Am/is/are/+S+(v+ing)+O+?
3) Present Perfect Tense
(हो चूका है/नहीं हो चूका है)
Positive:- S+ have/has + V3 +O
Negative:- S+ have/has + not + V3 +O
Q-I: Have/has + S + V3 + O +?
Q-II: Wh + Have/has + S + V3 + O +?
4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense
(वर्तमान में दो समय के बिच हो रहा था/नहीं हो रहा था)
Positive:- S + have/has + been +(V+ing) + O
Negative:– S+ have/has + not + been +(V+ing) + O
Q-I: Have/has + S + been +(V+ing) + O +?
Q-II: Wh + Have/has + S + been +(V+ing) + O +? =
5) Simple past tense
(हुआ/नहीं हुआ)
Positive: S + V2 + O
Negative: S + did + Not + V1 + O
Q-I: Did + S + V1 + O +?
Q-II:  W + did + S + V1 + O +?
6) Past Continuous Tense
(हो रहा था/नहीं हो रहा था)
Positive: S + was/were + (v+ing) + O
Negative: S + was/were + not +(v+ing) + O
Q-I: Was/were + S + (v+ing) + O +?
Q-II: W+ was/were + S + (v+ing) + O +?
7) Past Perfect Tense
(हो चूका था/नही हो चुका था)
Positive:- S + had + V3 + O
Negative:- S + had + not + V3 + O
Q-I: had + S + V3 + O +?
Q-II: Wh + had + S + V3 + O +?
8) Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(भुतकाल में दो समय के बिच हो रहा था/ नहीं हो रहा था)
Positive:- S + had + been + (V+ing) + O
Negative:- S + had + not + been +(V+ing) + O
Q-I: had + S + been + (V+ing) + O +?
Q-II: W + had + S + been+(V+ing) + O +?
9) Simple Future Tense
(होगा/नहीं होगा)
Positive: S + shall/will + V + O
Negative: S + shall/will + Not + V1 +O
Q-I: shall/will +S + V1+ O +?
Q-II: WH +shall/will + S + V1 + O +?
10) Future Continuous tense
(हो रहा होगा/नहीं हो रहा होगा)
Positive: S + shall/will + be+(v+ing) + O
Negative: S + shall/will + not+be (v+ing) + O
Q-I: shall/will + S + be + (v+ing) + O +?
Q-II:– W + shall/will + S + be +(v+ing) + O +?
11) Future Perfect Tense
(हो चूका होगा/नहीं हो चूका होगा)
Positive:- S + shall/will + have + V3 + O
Negative:- S + shall/will + not + have + V3 + O
Q-I: shall/will + S + have + V3 + O +?
Q-II: Wh + shall/will + S + have + V3 + O +?
12) Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(भविष्य में दो समय के बिच हो रहा होगा/ नहीं हो रहा होगा)
Positive:- S + shall/will + have been +(V+ing) + O
Negative:- S + shall/will + not + have been + (V+ing) + O
Q-I: shall/will + S + have been +(V+ing) + O +?
Q-II: W + shall/will + S + have been+(V+ing) + O +?

Present Tense in Hindi

चुँकि present indefinite का इस्तेमाल habit या regular क्रियाकलाप बताने के लिए किया जाता है, ऐसे शब्द जैसे seldom, usually, sometimes, often, everyday इत्यादि जो habitual actionबताते हैं के साथ simple present का इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।

  • He is always talking nonsense.(no)
  • He always talks nonsense.(yes)
  • How often are you going gymnasium?(no)
  • How often do you go gymnasium?(yes)
दो शब्द never और always इस मायने में अलग हैं कि इलके साथ simple present और present perfect दोनों का ही इस्तेमाल होता है।
  • He has always been a friend of mine(yes)
  • I have never visited such a place(yes)
If, when या whenever के साथ indefinite from का ही इस्तेमाल होता है।
  • Whenever he is getting time, he watches films.(no)
  • Whenever he gets time, he watches films.(yes)

Present Continuous Tense in Hindi

अगर वाक्य में presently, at present, at the moment, now या still (अभी भी) लगा हो तो वाक्य का verb present continuous form में होता है।

  • Still the bulk of Indian women lives below poverty line.(no)
  • Still the bulk of Indian women is living below poverty line.(yes)
  • Don’t disturb him, he has been studying at the moment.(no)
  • Don’t disturb him, he is studying at the moment.(yes)

चूँकि present continuous एक ऐसे काम के बारे मां बताता है जो थोडी देर के लिए चल रहा है, ऐसी कोई भी क्रिया जो स्वभाविक रुप से होती है (feel, hear, see, smell) या ऐसी कोई क्रिया जो स्थायी भावना बताती है(hate, like, admire, fear, love, respect, dislike, want, wish)या ऐसी कोई भी क्रिया जो स्वभाविक मानसिक क्रिया है (agree, know, mean, think, suppose, understand, believe) या ऐसी कोई भी क्रिया जो स्थायी अधिकार या स्वामित्व बताती है (belong, has/have, possess) continuous form में नहीं रखी जाती।

  • Most of the Indians are not thinking God to be just imagination.(no)
  • Most of the Indians do not think God to be just imagination.(yes)
  • Every living being, be it animal or man, is feeling cold in winter.(no)
  • Every living being, be it animal or man, feels cold in winter.(yes)

The instruction clearly mentions that each item is having two options. (has)

Present Perfect Tense in Hindi

So far, uptil now, everके साथ verb का form present perfect होता है।

  • Did you ever think of going abroad?(no)
  • Have you ever thought of going abroad? (yes)
  • We sent call-letters to many candidates, but only a few had reported so far. (no)
  • We sent call-letters to many candidates, but only a few have reported so far. (yes)

Yetके साथ present perfect का negative form इस्तेमाल होता है।

  • Hari has not yet received the information of the picnic. (no)
  • Hari has not received the information of the picnic yet. (yes)

अगर वाक्यों में since + point of timeया for + period of time लगा हो और दिया हुआ काम इस वक्त नही चल रहा हो, तो verb present perfect form में होता है।

  • India faced four foreign countries’ attacks since independence. (no)
  • India has faced four foreign countries’ attacks since independence. (yes)

अगर वाक्य में since + point of time या for + period of timeलगा हो और वाक्य में कोई verb नहीं हो तो has/have + been का इस्तेमाल होता है।

  • For ages, India is a champion of peace and non-violence. (no)
  • For ages, India has been a champion of peace and non-violence. (yes)

Perfect Perfect Continuous Tense in Hindi

अगर कोई काम past में शुरू हुआ हो और अभी तक चल रहा हो तो verb form present perfect continuous में होता है। किसी भी

  • Tense का perfect continuous प्राय: since + point of time तथा for+ period of time के साथ स्वाभाविक है।
  •  The meeting was already going on, when I reached there. (no)
  • The meeting had already been going on, when I reached there. (yes)
  •  He must be tired as he is watching television since morning. (no)
  •  He must be tired as he has been watching television since morning. (yes)

Past Indefinite Tense in Hindi

अगर वाक्य में भूतकाल को बताने वाला कोई भी शब्द लगा हो तो वाक्य के verb का form सिर्फ past indefinite (va) हो सकता है।

  • I don’t know where he is now, but I had seen him yesterday. (no)
  • I don’t know where he is now, but I saw him yesterday. (yes)

अगर वाक्य की मुख्य क्रिया past में हो तो वाक्य के अन्य verb भी past में ही रहेंगे।

  • The manger wanted to know whether he has done any mistake. (no)
  • The manger wanted to know whether he had done any mistake. (yes)
  • Nobody has answered the questions properly was his opinion. (no)
  • Nobody had answered the questions properly was his opinion. (yes)

लेकिन मुख्य क्रिया अगर past में भी हो परन्तु आगे आने वाला वाक्य universal truth हो तो उसकी क्रिया past में नही बदलकर यथावत रहेगी।Relative pronoun(who, which, that)के बाद आने वाली क्रिया पर भी past tense का असर पङता है।

  • Today I missed my morning train which I usually caught. (no)
  • Today I missed my morning train which I usually catch. (yes)
  • People in ancient time believed that nab was a pawn in the hand of time. (no)
  • People in ancient time believed that man is a pawn in the hand of time. (yes)

Past Continuous Tense In Hindi

यदि दो वाक्य past tense में हों और उनमें से एक वाक्य कोई घटना बता रहा हो जाबकि दूसरा वाक्य यह बता रहा होति वह घटना कब घटि, तो घटना वाले verb का form v2 (past indefinite) होगा जबकि उस वाक्य का verb जो यह घटना कब घटी है, past continuous में होगा।

  • When Monika entered the office, a speeding car dashed her. (was entering)
  • When the theft occurred in the house, the family attended a night party. (was attending)

Past Perfect Tense In Hindi

Past के वाक्य में अगर एक काम के शुरु होने के पहले दूसरा खत्म होने का बोध हो तो जो काम पहले खत्म हो जाए past perfect में होगा जबकि बाद में समाप्त होने वाला काम past indefinite में होगा। यह प्राय: before या after के साथ स्वा भाविक होता है

  • After the food was served people folded their hands in prayer. (no)
  • After the food had been served people folded their hands in prayer. (yes)

अगर past में दो वाक्य हों और एक वाक्य कोई अधूरा काम या उद्देश्य का अर्थ दे तो दूसरा वाक्य past prefect में रहेगा जबकि अधूरा उद्देश्य बताने वाला वाक्य past indefinite में रहेगा।

  • Although we reached his house on time, he left for the station. (had left)
  • On reaching the school campus he was disappointed as the bus went. (had gone)
  • Before he was seventeen, he had learnt to speak three languages. (yes)

Future Indefinite Tense In hindi

समय (when, until, till, so long as ,as long as इत्यादि) और शर्त (if, unless, in case, whether, provided इत्यादि) के तुरंत बाद आने वाला वाक्य में will, shallया किसी भी modal auxiliary का इस्तेमाल नहीं होता है।

  • Until you will stay here, how will you meet the chairman?(no)
  • Until you stay here, how will you meet the chairman?(yes)
  • You will have to stay here alone in case it will rain.(no)
  • You will have to stay here alone in case it rains.(yes)

आज काल किसी भी person के साथ ‘will’ का इस्तेमाल होता है। परंतु प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य में I, we के साथ shall का ही इस्तेमाल होता है। यहाँ ‘Will’ का इस्तेमाल गलत होगा।

  • We will stay here until he comes back.(YES)

But

  • Will we continue doing it?(no)
  • Shall we continue doing it?(yes)

Future बताने के लिए present continuous का भी इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। एक अन्य structure भी future बताने के लिए इस्तेमाल होता है – is/am/ are + going + to V1

  • I am meeting the chairman today to present my grievances.(yes)
  • I am going to meet the chairmen today to present my grievances.(yes)

Future Perfect Tense Rules In Hindi

अगर future के वाक्य में by then, by that time या by + future time लगा हो तो verb का form future perfect में होगा।

  • We hope that by that 2020 A.D. India will be a developed country. (no)
  • We hope that by 2020 A.D. India will have been a developed country. (yes)
  • I assure you that by when you get back all work will be finished by then. (no)
  • I assure you that when you get back all work will have been finished by then. (yes)

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